1. Strategy plane

Product objectives

Biz goals – what are our metrics for success?

User needs – who are our users and what problem are we solving?

Market research

Create personas


User testing – validate


2. Scope plane

Create Scenarios – user stories

Competitors research

Functional spec – be positive, be specific.

Content Spec – for content feature identify how it will be updated.

Prioritize ideas


3. Structure plane

Define options presented to the user

Describe how the user responds to the product

Conceptual modules – find consistency and conventions

Error handling – design for avoiding errors. E.G. automatic cars.

Categorize and group information – bottom down(strategy) or bottom up(Scope).

Create User flow



4. Skeleton plane

Create metaphors

Define navigation

Define and organize the information

Sketch how the product works – interface, navigation, information



5. Surface plane

Involve senses

Design principles – contrast, colour, grids, consistency, type, style guides



What problem are we trying to solve?

What are the consequences of our solution?

Ask the right questions